Blood Cells and the Hematopoietic System Discussion Paper

Blood Cells and the Hematopoietic System Discussion Paper

Introduction
A 16-year-old involved in a motor vehicle accident is brought via ambulance to the emergency room you work at. She needs an emergency blood transfusion. Her mother, a devout Jehovah’s Witness, refuses to give permission for her daughter to receive blood products because it goes against her faith.

Discussion Guidelines
Initial Post
In your initial post, answer the following questions:

As a culturally and religiously sensitive nurse, how might you explain to this mother why her daughter needs blood?
What are the ethical issues raised by the mother refusing blood products for her daughter?
If the mother continued to refuse to allow her daughter to receive blood products, what would you do as a provider?
At the end of this lesson, you will be able to:

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Blood Cells and the Hematopoietic System

Composition of Blood and Formation of Blood Cells
Describe the composition and functions of plasma
Describe the formed elements of blood and cite their function and lifespan
Trace the process of hematopoiesis from stem cell to mature blood cell
Diagnostic Tests
Describe the components of a complete blood count with differential
Disorders of Hemostasis

Mechanisms of Hemostasis
Describe the three stages of hemostasis
Explain the purpose of blood coagulation and the function of clot retraction and clot dissolution
Hypercoagulability States
Compare normal and abnormal clotting
Describe the causes and effects of increased platelet function
Differentiate between two conditions that contribute to increased clotting activity
Bleeding Disorders
Differentiate the mechanisms of drug-induced thrombocytopenia and idiopathic thrombocytopenia
Explain the physiologic basis of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
Learning Materials
Read the following in your Porth’s Pathophysiology: Concepts of Altered Health States textbook:

Chapter 21, “ Blood Cells and the Hematopoietic System ”
Chapter 22, “ Disorders of Hemostasis ”
Instructional Materials
Disorders of Red Blood Cells
The Red Blood Cell
Discuss the function of iron in the formation of hemoglobin
Describe the formation, transport, and elimination of bilirubin
Describe red blood cell count, percentage of reticulocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration as it relates to the diagnosis of anemia

Blood Types and Transfusion Therapy
Differentiate red cell antigens from antibodies in people with type A, B, AB, or O blood and explain the determination of the Rh factor
Anemia
Describe the manifestations of anemia and their mechanisms
Compare characteristics of the red blood cells in acute blood loss, hereditary spherocytosis, sickle cell disease, iron deficiency anemia, and aplastic anemia
Polycythemia
Define the term polycythemia and describe the manifestations of polycythemia
Age-Related Changes in Red Blood Cells
Describe the function of hemoglobin F in the neonate and describe the red blood cell changes that occur during the early neonatal period

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Describe the pathogenesis of hemolytic disease of the newborn
Explain the action of phototherapy in the treatment of hyperbilirubinemia in the neonate
Disorders of White Blood Cells and Lymphoid Tissue
Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissue
Describe the different types of white blood cells and structures of the lymphoid system where they circulate and mature
Trace the development of the different white blood cells from their origin in the pluripotent bone marrow stem cell to their circulation in the bloodstream
Nonneoplastic Disorders of White Blood Cells
Define the terms leukopenia, neutropenia, granulocytopenia, and aplastic anemia

Describe the mechanism of symptom production in neutropenia
Neoplastic Disorders of Lymphoid and Hematopoietic Origin
Use the concepts regarding the central and peripheral lymphoid tissues to describe the site of origin of the malignant lymphomas and leukemias
Read the following in your Porth’s Pathophysiology: Concepts of Altered Health States textbook:
Chapter 23, “Disorders of Red Blood Cells”
Chapter 24, “Disorders of White Blood Cells and Lymphoid Tissues”
Chapters 23 and 24 in Porth’s Pathophysiology present the disorders of red blood cells, and disorders of white blood cells and lymphoid tissue, respectively. The presentations directly follow the material presented in the textbook.
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Blood Cells and the Hematopoietic System Discussion Paper

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